Requirement of Mens Rea for War Crimes in the Light of the Development of Autonomous Weapons Systems

Xavier J. Ramírez García de León

Resumen

El desarrollo de prácticamente cualquier tecnología conlleva presiones sobre el marco legal que evidencian, por lo general, las dificultades que presenta el derecho para avanzar al mismo ritmo. En algunos casos, estas presiones adquieren una relevancia significativa, si no por su visibilidad, sí por las consecuencias que una deficiente regulación podría generar. Este artículo analiza, desde la perspectiva de la Corte Penal Internacional, el supuesto problema que implicaría la introducción de sistemas de armas autónomas al campo de batalla, particularmente en lo relativo al requisito de mens rea para crímenes de guerra.

Palabras clave

sistemas de armas autónomos; mens rea; crímenes de guerra; Corte Penal Internacional

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias

Backstrom, Alan and Henderson, Ian, “New Capabilities in Warfare: An Overview of Contemporary Technological Developments and Associated Legal and Engineering Issues in Article 36 Weapons Review”, International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 94, issue 886, 2012.

Beidel, Eric, “All Systems Go: Navy’s Laser Weapon Ready for Summer Deployment”, Office of Naval Research. Available at: http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2014/Laser-Weapon-Ready-For-Deployment.aspx.

Beidel, Eric, “Bad News for the Bad Guys: Laser Weapon Being Readied for Marine Vehicles”, Office of Naval Research. Available at: http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2014/Ground-Based-Air-Defense-Laser.aspx.

Blanchard, Ben, “China’s Xi Urges Faster Development of New Weapons Systems”, Reuters. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-defence-idUSKCN0JJ04620141205.

Boas, Gideon et al., International Criminal Law Practitioner Library, vol. 2. Elements of Crimes under International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Boothby, William, “Some Legal Challenges Posed by Remote Attack”, International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 94, issue 886, 2012.

Byron, Christine, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2009.

Calverley, David J., “Imagining a Non-Biological Machine as a Legal Person”, AI & Soc., vol. 22, 2008.

Castellaneta, Marina, “New Weapons, Old Crimes?”, in Pocar, Fausto et al. (eds.), War Crimes and the Conduct of Hostilities. Challenges to Adjudication and Investigation, UK-USA, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.

Clark, Roger S., “Building on Article 8 (2) (B) (XX) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Weapons and Methods of Warfare”, New Crimiinal Law Rev., vol. 12 no. 3, 2009.

Clark, Roger S., “The Mental Element in International Criminal Law: The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and The Elements of Offences”, Criminal Law Forum, vol. 12, 2001.

Cryer, Robert et al., An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2019.

DARPA, “GXV-T Imagines Future Armored Ground Vehicles that Could Increase Survivability through Improved Situational Awareness”, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 2014. Available at: http://www.darpa.mil/news-events/2014-10-07.

Dinstein, Yoram, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Dondé Matute, Javier, “El concepto de mens rea en el derecho penal internacional”, in INACIPE, Homenaje a Ricardo Franco Guzmán. 50 años de vida Académica, México, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Penales, 2008.

Dörmann, Knut, “War Crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, with a Special Focus on the Negotiations on the Elements of Crimes”, in Von Bogdandy, A. and Wolfrum, R. (eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, vol. 7, 2003.

Finnin, Sarah, “Mental Elements under Article 30 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. A Comparative Analysis”, ICLQ, vol. 61, issue 2, 2012.

Fisher, Richard D., “China Showcases New Weapon Systems at 3 September Parade”, IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly. Available at: http://www.janes.com/article/54029/china-showcases-new-weapon-systems-at-3-september-parade.

Grady, John, “Senate Panel Explores Speed of U.S. Military Technology, Weapons Development”, USNI News. Available at: http://news.usni.org/2015/11/03/senate-panel-explores-speed-of-u-s-military-technology-weapons-development.

Grut, Chantal, “The Challenge of Autonomous Lethal Robotics to International Humanitarian Law”, J. Conflict & Sec. L., vol. 18, issue 1, 2013.

Heyns, Christof, “Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions”, A/HRC/23/47, United Nations-Human Right Council, 9 April 2013.

Human Rights Watch, “Mind the Gap. The Lack of Accountability for Killer Robots”, 2015. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/04/09/mind-gap/lack-accountability-killer-robots.

International Committee of the Red Cross, “Expert Meeting: Autonomous Weapon Systems, Technical, Military, Legal and Humanitarian Aspects”, 26-28 March 2014.

International Committee of the Red Cross, “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts”, 28 November to 1 December 2011.

Isachenkov, Vladimir, “Russia will Deploy New Strike Weapons Capable of Piercing NATO’s U.S.-Led Missile Defence Shield”, National Post. Available at: http://news.nationalpost.com/news/russia-will-deploy-new-strike-weapons-capable-of-piercing-natos-u-s-led-missile-defence-shield.

Kastan, Benjamin, “Autonomous Weapons Systems: A Coming Legal «Singularity»?”, U.Ill. J. L. Tech. & Pol’y, vol. 45, 2013.

Kravets, David, “Jan. 25, 1979: Robot kills Human”, Wired. Available at: http://www.wired.com/2010/01/0125robot-kills-worker/.

Krishnan, Armin, Killer Robots. Legality and Ethicality of Autonomous Weapons, New York, Routledge, 2009.

Lendon, Brad, “The US Successfully Tested a Laser Weapon that Can Destroy Aircraft Mid-Flight”, CNN. Available at: https://edition.cnn.com/

/05/22/asia/us-navy-lwsd-laser-intl-hnk-scli/index.html.

Levine II, James D., “The Doctrine of Command Responsibility and its Application to Superior Civilian Leadership: Does the International Criminal Court Have the Correct Standard?”, Mil. L. Rev., vol. 193, 2007.

McFarland, Tim and McCormack, Tim, “Mind the Gap: Can Developers of Autonomous Weapons Systems be Liable for War Crimes?”, Int’l L. Stud., vol. 90, 2014.

Mettraux, Guénaël, The Law of Command Responsibility, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009.

Noone, Gregory P. and Noone, Diana C., “The Debate over Autonomous Weapons Systems”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, vol. 47, 2015.

O’Brien, Melanie, “The Ascension of Blue Beret Account. International Criminal Court Command and Superior Responsibility in Peace Operations”, J. Conflict & Sec. L., vol. 15, issue 3, 2010.

Pilling, Michael, “Issues Regarding the Future Application of Autonomous Systems to Command and Control (C2)”, DSTO-TR-3112, DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 2015.

“Robot kills Worker at Volkswagen Plant in Germany”, The Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/02/robot-kills-work

er-at-volkswagen-plant-in-germany.

Sassóli, Marco, “Autonomous Weapons and International Humanitarian Law: Advantages, Open Technical Questions and Legal Issues to be Clarified”, Int’l L. Stud., vol. 90, 2014.

Sparrow, Robert, “Twenty Seconds to Comply: Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Recognition of Surrender”, Int’l L. Stud., vol. 91, 2015.

Thomas, Bradan T., “Autonomous Weapons Systems: The Anatomy of Autonomy and the Legality of Lethality”, Hous. J. Int’l L., vol. 37, issue 1, 2015.

“Trust me, I’m a Robot”, The Economist. Available at http://www.economist.com/node/7001829.

Van der Vyver, Johan D., “The International Criminal Court and the Concept of Mens Rea in International Criminal Law”, U. Miami Int’l & Comp. L. Rev., vol. 12, 2004.

Waytz, Adam et al., “The Mind in the Machine: Anthropomorphism Increases Trust in an Autonomous Vehicle”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 52, 2014.

Weber, Jutta, “Armchair Warfare «on terrorism»: On Robots, Targeted Assassinations and Strategic Violations of International Humanitarian Law”, in Vallverdú, Jordi (ed.), Thinking Machines and the Philosophy of the Computer Science: Concepts and Principles, Information Science Reference, 2010.

Webster, David, “The Not so Peaceful Civilization: A Review of Maya War”, Journal of World Prehistory, vol. 14, issue 1, 2000.

Weizmann, Nathalie and Costas Trascasas, Milena, “Autonomous Weapons Systems under International Law”, Academy Briefing, issue 8, 2014.

Werle, Gerhard and Jessberger, Florian, “«Unless otherwise Provided»: Article 30 of the ICC Statute and the Mental Element of Crimes under International Criminal Law”, J. Int’l Crim. Just., vol. 3, 2005.

Enlaces de Referencia

  • Por el momento, no existen enlaces de referencia