Afrontando jurídica, política y socioeconómicamente la migración de las poblaciones de peces en el atlántico norte debido al cambio climático

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Risteard de Paor

Resumen

Debido al cambio climático se está produciendo una migración significativa de poblaciones de peces, y la normativa e instrumentos económico-jurídicos internacionales existentes no están adaptados para gestionarla. La gobernanza socioeconómica y normativa actual sobre el presente asunto es insuficiente en vista de los conflictos surgidos e indicios de disputas futuras. En aras de evitar, reducir, atenuar y/o dirimir controversias de este tipo, y preservar tanto las relaciones internacionales como las poblaciones de peces, se propone establecer un nuevo instrumento de pesca holístico bajo la CNUDM. El instrumento debería establecer los principios básicos que rigen la ordenación de la migración de peces inducida por el cambio climático desde una perspectiva socioeconómica y jurídica. Asimismo, cubriría tanto las zonas económicas exclusivas como alta mar.
En particular, debería fomentar una integración mayor e inmediata de avances científicos relevantes en la política pesquera; mayor flexibilidad en el reconocimiento e intercambio de derechos de pesca; un enfoque combinado ascendente y descendente de la ordenación pesquera; la creación de un comité mundial de supervisión (compuesto por miembros de la FAO, el ICES, la OCDE y, cuando se trata —indirectamente— de subsidios, la OMC, y el recurso a ITLOS y al arbitraje internacional para resolver disputas. El último concepto principal (cambios en las subvenciones a la industria pesquera para abordar la sobrecapacidad y la sobrepesca) se está abordando actualmente a nivel de la OMC a través de un proyecto de texto y debería tenerse en cuenta en el nuevo instrumento.

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